UK manufactured reinforcement is made from 100% recycled scrap metal. At the end of its life, all reinforcing steel can be recovered, recycled and used again. The embodied energy values of reinforcing steel are based on the energy used to melt and reform it - unlike those for structural steel which are mostly converted in a very energy-intensive process from iron ore. The energy input per tonne of reinforced steel is less than half of that for structural steel.

Aggregates, including sand, gravel and crushed rock account for approximately 80 percent of a typical concrete mix. The concrete industry is actively pursuing a policy of recycling concrete to reduce the use of these natural resources. Concrete is 100% recyclable and concrete from a demolished building or infrastructure can be crushed and recycled as aggregate for new construction. Some construction companies are reporting a recycling rate of 70 to 90 percent of concrete from their waste streams returning as aggregate.

The reinforcement, concrete and cement industries are fully committed to reducing their environmental impacts, adhering to responsible sourcing criteria, increasing waste usage and recyclability. For further information visit: